Collectivisation of agriculture

Background[ edit ] After the emancipation of the serfs inpeasants gained control of about half of the land they had previously cultivated, and began to ask for the redistribution of all land. The Russian Provisional Government accomplished little during the difficult World War I months, though Russian leaders continued to promise redistribution. Peasants began to turn against the Provisional Government and organized themselves into land committees, which together with the traditional peasant communes became a powerful force of opposition. When Vladimir Lenin returned to Russia on April 16,he promised the people "Peace, Land and Bread," the latter two appearing as a promise to the peasants for the redistribution of confiscated land and a fair share of food for every worker respectively.

Collectivisation of agriculture

Lewis Siegelbaum Chronic shortfalls in state procurements of grain and a rising tide of working-class protests over shortages combined to persuade Stalin and his supporters within the party leadership to abandon the market as the main mechanism by which goods from the countryside were obtained.

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One was that large units of production, organized along the lines of industrial enterprises and with access to mechanized equipment, were far more efficient and would permit the extraction of greater surpluses than the traditional strip farming practiced by Russian peasants.

It followed from this that so-called middle peasants who, again by their very nature, wavered between supporting state initiatives and opposing them, could be won over to collective farming by a combination of inducements access to mechanized equipment, credits, etc.

Party agitators sent to the villages to persuade peasants of the benefits of collectivization often met with skepticism and mockery. Peasants who resisted the pressure of regional party officials to enroll in collective farms were labeled as kulaks; those who feared confiscation sold off their property as quickly as they could, in effect self-dekulakizing.

By June one million — out of some 25 million — peasant households had been enrolled in 57, collectives. Still, the majority held back. By March an estimated 55 percent of peasant households at least nominally had enrolled in collective farms.

Collectivisation of agriculture

However, this reversal was short-lived. Fines and compulsory sales of property for peasants unable or unwilling to meet delivery quotas drove many back into the kolkhoz system; by July the proportion of households in collective farms had risen to 53 percent and a year later to Among the incentives to join collective farms was access to mechanized equipment.

In June an experimental machine-tractor station operating on the Shevchenko state farm in Odessa oblast was identified in a decree of the Council of Labor and Defense as a model for the entire USSR. Peasant resistance to collectivization took many forms: The tremendous loss of livestock through slaughter, inadequate fodder, and simple neglect made it virtually impossible for kolkhozes to fulfill their procurement quotas for meat and dairy products.

Failure of collective farms to meet procurement quotas had dire consequences for their members. It meant that no matter how many labordays the unit of accounting according to which collective farmers were paid kolkhozniks worked, there was nothing to pay them.

Duringprocurement quotas were set at levels that exceeded the capacity of most farms. Infarms in Ukraine, the Lower Volga and the North Caucasus were hit by a poor harvest, leading to famine conditions.

Blaming shortages on kulak sabotage, authorities favored urban areas and the army in distributing what supplies of food had been collected. The resulting loss of life is estimated as at least five million. To escape from starvation, large numbers of peasants abandoned collective farms for the cities.Collectivization, policy adopted by the Soviet government, pursued most intensively between and , to transform traditional agriculture in the Soviet Union and to reduce the economic power of the kulaks (prosperous peasants).

By the end of the s, it was clear that Russian agriculture was inadequate. Although the kulaks [Kulaks: Wealthy Russian farming peasants, who strongly opposed collectivisation - Stalin killed.

By the end of the s, it was clear that Russian agriculture was inadequate. Although the kulaks [Kulaks: Wealthy Russian farming peasants, who strongly opposed collectivisation - Stalin killed.

Collectivisation of agriculture

Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." Tony Cliff "Marxism and the collectivisation of agriculture" Kiernan, Ben ().

In November , Joseph Stalin launched his “revolution from above” by setting two extraordinary goals for Soviet domestic policy: rapid industrialization and collectivization of agriculture.

His aims were to erase all traces of the capitalism that had entered under the New Economic Policy and to transform the Soviet Union as quickly as possible, without regard to cost, into an. The decollectivization of agriculture was followed by the expansion of off-farm rural industrial employment in Township and Village enterprises in the mids.

Childcare provisions and women's participation in off-farm employment: evidence from low-income rural areas.

Collective farming - Wikipedia