Widely debated and often misunderstood, gender concerns have immense significance in contemporary culture as they are part of the international political and social agenda of most countries in the world. The Gender Development Index has recorded the global monitoring of existing gender gaps sinceand it provides clear evidence of how much still needs to be done before a truly equitable gender balance is reached. Critical gender perspectives have made a significant difference to most academic fields, including the study of religion.
There was widespread cross-cultural consensus regarding the expected direction of aging trajectories with 1 perceived declines in societal views of aging, physical attractiveness, the ability to perform everyday tasks, and new learning, 2 perceived increases in wisdom, knowledge, and received respect, and 3 perceived stability in family authority and life satisfaction.
Cross-cultural variations in aging perceptions were associated with culture-level indicators of population aging, education levels, values, and national character stereotypes.
These associations were stronger for societal views on aging and perceptions of socioemotional changes than for perceptions of physical and cognitive changes. A consideration of culture-level variables also suggested that previously reported differences in aging perceptions between Asian and Western countries may be related to differences in population structure.
Aging, stereotypes, cross-cultural, values, national character stereotypes Perceptions of aging influence societal behaviors and expectations towards older people e.
The majority of studies in this field have focused on individual differences in perceptions of aging within mostly Western cultures, but there is growing evidence that views of aging may differ across cultures as well e.
The present study extends previous research by comparing multiple aspects of aging perceptions across 26 cultures and examining their culture-level associates. To provide the background for this work, we review previous research on intercultural differences in perceptions of aging and discuss theoretical perspectives on the causes of such differences.
According to social representations theory Moscovici,the views of aging held within a given culture are a form of shared cultural representation.
They constitute systems of ideas, values, and customs related to aging that are treated by members of the society as if they were established reality. Perceptions of aging are multi-dimensional in nature e.
To the extent that aging perceptions reflect such biologically based differences in functioning, one might expect to see comparatively little variation across cultures.
Perceptions of age related changes in these characteristics may therefore show a greater extent of cross-cultural variation. Previous research has explored several potential explanations for intercultural differences in perceptions of aging.
Early studies which focused on socioeconomic predictors found that higher levels of economic development and industrialization are associated with less favorable attitudes towards aging and a lower societal status of older adults e.
Modernization theory Cowgill, ; explained such findings by arguing that a shift towards industrialized modes of production undermines the societal status of older adults, devalues their experience-based knowledge, breaks up traditional extended families through urbanization, and shifts control over the means of production from family elders to industrial entities Cowgill, Although intuitively appealing, modernization theory has been criticized as an oversimplification e.
This body of work was inspired by the idea that Asian societies are influenced by Confucian values of filial piety and the practice of ancestor worship which are thought to promote positive views of aging and high esteem for older adults e. Western societies, in contrast, were thought to be youth-oriented and to hold more negative views about the aging process and the elderly e.
Empirical evidence for the proposed East-West differences is scarce. Although some studies have found support for the notion that aging attitudes are more positive in Asian as compared to Western cultures e.
In summary, there is some evidence that both socioeconomic development and cultural values and beliefs may matter for cross-cultural differences in aging attitudes. However, findings are limited in several important aspects.
For one, most previous studies included only small groups of countries. In fact, the vast majority of the literature consists of pairwise comparisons. Among the exceptions are one study that compared five countries Harwood et al. Conclusions that can be drawn from the previous literature are also limited because studies used a wide array of measures ranging from open-ended descriptions of older and younger adults Bodoruglu et al.
This makes it difficult to integrate findings into a generalized cross-cultural pattern of aging attitudes. Moreover, cultural differences in values and beliefs are frequently inferred from broad classifications into Eastern versus Western countries see Giles et al.
|Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview||Oral customary law learned as a way of life by example Law and justice are part of a whole The spiritual realm is invoked in ceremonies and prayer Builds trusting relationships to promote resolution and healing Talk and discussion is essential Reviews problem in its entirety, contributing factors are examined Comprehensive problem solving No time limits on the process, long silences and patience are valued Inclusive of all affected individuals in the process and solving problem Representation by extended family members Focus on victim and communal rights Corrective, offenders are accountable and responsible for change Customary sanctions used to restore victim-offender relationship Obligation of accused to verbalize accountability Reparative obligation to victims and community, apology and forgiveness Indigenous Systems Today The status of tribes as sovereign nations are both preconstitutional and xtraconstitutional.|
|Perceptions of Aging across 26 Cultures and their Culture-Level Associates||Published by Oxford University Press.|
|Non-Western Cultures||References and Further Reading 1. Sources of Western Concepts of God Sources of western concepts of the divine have been threefold:|
This approach glosses over variations among individual Asian cultures, ignores cultures that cannot be classified as Eastern or Western, confounds cross-cultural differences in socioeconomic factors and value systems, and fails to pinpoint the specific aspects of cultural values that are most relevant in shaping perceptions of aging.
Decades of cross-cultural research have yielded comprehensive data regarding culturally shared values e. To date, this rich body of knowledge has not been adequately linked to cross-cultural differences in aging perceptions. The present study extends previous research by examining perceptions of aging among college students from 26 different cultures in six continents.
Participants rated their perceptions of age-related changes in physical, cognitive, and socioemotional characteristics and evaluated societal views about aging within their cultures.
This allowed us to disentangle the relative influence of socioeconomic factors i. Finally, to examine culture-level associations between perceptions of aging and other forms of stereotypical beliefs, we included national character stereotypes Terracciano et al.
In general, we predicted that perceptions about aspects of aging that are strongly linked to biological changes i.
For culture-level associations with socioeconomic characteristics, we expected to replicate previous research indicating that advanced development is associated with less favorable perceptions of aging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine culture-level associations among values, national character stereotypes, and perceptions of aging.
We therefore adopted an exploratory approach and did not postulate specific hypotheses regarding the direction of the effects.
Also, given the equivocal research record on East-West differences see above we did not expect to find strong differences in aging perceptions between Asian and Western countries. Instead, we expected to find a more complex pattern such that East-West differences in aging perceptions are related to both socioeconomic factors and cultural values and beliefs.
Method Participants and Procedure Questionnaires were administered to samples of college students from 26 cultures in six continents.GENDER AND RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW The subtle patterns and dynamic of gender pervade all areas of religion, both explicitly and implicitly, whether fully recognized or unacknowledged.
Widely debated and often misunderstood, gender concerns have immense significance in contemporary culture as they are part of the international political and social agenda of most countries in the world.
Oct 27, · Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview Bhushan Patwardhan, 1, * Dnyaneshwar Warude, 1 P. Pushpangadan, 2 and Narendra Bhatt 3 1 Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Pune, Pune , India. Comparative Overview of Non Western Tribal Art Tribal art refer to the visual arts as well as material civilization of home-grown people.
Some people refer to tribal . Associate of General Education: Management Degree Overview. Associate of General Education (AGE) programs do not offer management options, but they can serve as transfer options, and students.
In-depth linguistic analysis of selected phonological, syntactic, and semantic problems in a non-Western language, concentrating on native languages of the Southwest area. Graduate-level requirements include a higher level of performance. This article analyses the emergence of the behavioural approach in comparative politics after World War 2.
The behavioural approach had four significant dimensions.