Unsatisfied with scholastic philosophy and troubled by skepticism of the sort expounded by MontaigneDescartes soon conceived a comprehensive plan for applying mathematical methods in order to achieve perfect certainty in human knowledge. During a twenty-year period of secluded life in Holland, he produced the body of work that secured his philosophical reputation. Descartes moved to Sweden inbut did not survive his first winter there.
He referred to it in Latin without explicitly stating the familiar form of the phrase in his Meditations on First Philosophy.
The earliest written record of the phrase in Latin is in his Principles of Philosophywhere, in a margin note see belowhe provides a clear explanation of his intent: Fuller forms of the phrase are attributable to other authors.
Accordingly, seeing that our senses sometimes deceive us, I was willing to suppose that there existed nothing really such as they presented to us; And because some men err in reasoning, and fall into Paralogisms, even on the simplest matters of Geometry, I, convinced that I was as open to error as any other, rejected as false all the reasonings I had hitherto taken for Demonstrations; And finally, when I considered that the very same thoughts presentations which we experience when awake may also be experienced when we are asleep, while there is at that time not one of them true, I supposed that all the objects presentations that had ever entered into my mind when awake, had in them no more truth than the illusions of my dreams.
But immediately upon this I observed that, whilst I thus wished to think that all was false, it was absolutely necessary that I, who thus thought, should be something; And as I observed that this truth, I think, therefore I am, [d] was so certain and of such evidence that no ground of doubt, however extravagant, could be alleged by the Sceptics capable of shaking it, I concluded that I might, without scruple, accept it as the first principle of the philosophy of which I was in search.
While we thus reject all of which we can entertain the smallest doubt, and even imagine that it is false, we easily indeed suppose that there is neither God, nor sky, nor bodies, and that we ourselves even have neither hands nor feet, nor, finally, a body; but we cannot in the same way suppose that we are not while we doubt of the truth of these things; for there is a repugnance in conceiving that what thinks does not exist at the very time when it thinks.
Accordingly, the knowledge, [i] I think, therefore I am, [d] is the first and most certain that occurs to one who philosophizes orderly.
That we cannot doubt of our existence while we doubt, and that this is the first knowledge we acquire when we philosophize in order.
In the Meditations, Descartes phrases the conclusion of the argument as "that the proposition, I am, I exist, is necessarily true whenever it is put forward by me or conceived in my mind. In his belief in his own existence, he finds that it is impossible to doubt that he exists.
But I have convinced myself that there is absolutely nothing in the world, no sky, no earth, no minds, no bodies. Does it now follow that I, too, do not exist? If I convinced myself of something [or thought anything at all], then I certainly existed.
But there is a deceiver of supreme power and cunning who deliberately and constantly deceives me. In that case, I, too, undoubtedly exist, if he deceives me; and let him deceive me as much as he can, he will never bring it about that I am nothing, so long as I think that I am something.
So, after considering everything very thoroughly, I must finally conclude that the proposition, I am, I exist, is necessarily true whenever it is put forward by me or conceived in my mind.
First, he claims only the certainty of his own existence from the first-person point of view — he has not proved the existence of other minds at this point. This is something that has to be thought through by each of us for ourselves, as we follow the course of the meditations.
Second, he does not say that his existence is necessary; he says that if he thinks, then necessarily he exists see the instantiation principle. Third, this proposition "I am, I exist" is held true not based on a deduction as mentioned above or on empirical induction but on the clarity and self-evidence of the proposition.
Descartes does not use this first certainty, the cogito, as a foundation upon which to build further knowledge; rather, it is the firm ground upon which he can stand as he works to discover further truths  As he puts it: Archimedes used to demand just one firm and immovable point in order to shift the entire earth; so I too can hope for great things if I manage to find just one thing, however slight, that is certain and unshakable.
As a consequence of this demonstration, Descartes considers science and mathematics to be justified to the extent that their proposals are established on a similarly immediate clarity, distinctiveness, and self-evidence that presents itself to the mind.
Baruch Spinoza in " Principia philosophiae cartesianae " at its Prolegomenon identified "cogito ergo sum" the "ego sum cogitans" I am a thinking being as the thinking substance with his ontological interpretation. It can also be considered that Cogito ergo sum is needed before any living being can go further in life".
But if life itself is good and pleasant Nicomachean Ethicsa25 ff. Furthermore, in the Enchiridion Augustine attempts to refute skepticism by stating, "[B]y not positively affirming that they are alive, the skeptics ward off the appearance of error in themselves, yet they do make errors simply by showing themselves alive; one cannot err who is not alive.
That we live is therefore not only true, but it is altogether certain as well" Chapter 7 section The central idea of cogito, ergo sum is also the topic of Mandukya Upanishad. Apparently, the first scholar who raised the "I" problem was Pierre Gassendi.
He "points out that recognition that one has a set of thoughts does not imply that one is a particular thinker or another. Were we to move from the observation that there is thinking occurring to the attribution of this thinking to a particular agent, we would simply assume what we set out to prove, namely, that there exists a particular person endowed with the capacity for thought".
In other words, "the only claim that is indubitable here is the agent-independent claim that there is cognitive activity present".
Friedrich Nietzsche criticized the phrase in that it presupposes that there is an "I", that there is such an activity as "thinking", and that "I" know what "thinking" is. He suggested a more appropriate phrase would be "it thinks" wherein the "it" could be an impersonal subject as in the sentence "It is raining.
For Kierkegaard, Descartes is merely "developing the content of a concept", namely that the "I", which already exists, thinks.
He argues, first, that it is impossible to make sense of "there is thinking" without relativizing it to something.To the cogito ergo sum of Descartes it was readily and early objected, that if it identified my being and my consciousness, then I must either always be conscious, or, if consciousness ceases, I must cease to be.
Descartes chose the former alternative, and maintained a continuity of consciousness through waking and sleeping. Cogito ergo sum. Scholars would recognize this issue of high debates even today, almost five hundred years after the words were uttered; though in the present most people in the world wouldn't understand what it refers to.
In , René Descartes published his "Meditations on First Philosophy," in. I agree with the statement "cogito ergo sum," or I think therefore I am. If all you can prove without doubt is that, to exist is to think, then that is our definition.
In this paper, I will explain and analyze Gregersen's "seven features of human personhood," and refute all of his points to prove my own.
Cogito ergo sum. Scholars would recognize this issue of high debates even today, almost five hundred years after the words were uttered; though in the present most people in . Cogito Ergo Sum Essay Sample. Cogito ergo sum, or its translation, “I think, therefore I am,” is a frequently-quoted line from well-known mathematician and philosopher René Descartes.
Rene Descartes: Mediations on First Philosophy Rene Descartes, known as one of the most influential philosophers of his time, is famously quoted to have been proven the existence of himself with the infamous statement, Cogito ergo sum or (in English) I think, therefore I am.