Mindfulness-based stress reduction Mindfulness-based stress reduction MBSR is a mindfulness-based program  developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, which uses a combination of mindfulness meditation, body awareness, and yoga to help people become more mindful. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy MBCT is a psychological therapy designed to aid in preventing the relapse of depression, specifically in individuals with Major depressive disorder MDD. Cognitive methods can include educating the participant about depression. Acceptance and commitment therapy Acceptance and commitment therapy or ACT typically pronounced as the word "act" is a form of clinical behavior analysis CBA  used in psychotherapy.
Buddhism[ edit ] Mindfulness as a modern, Western practice is founded on Zen and modern vipassana  [note 10] and involves the training of sati, which means "moment to moment awareness of present events", but also "remembering to be aware of something".
Mindfulness is an antidote to delusion and is considered as a 'power' Pali: This faculty becomes a power in particular when it is coupled with clear comprehension of whatever is taking place. Nirvana is a state of being in which greed, hatred and delusion Pali: According to Paul Williams, referring to Erich Frauwallner, mindfulness provided the way in early Buddhism to liberation, "constantly watching sensory experience in order to prevent the arising of cravings which would power future experience into rebirths.
Rhys Davids viewed the teachings of Gotama as a rational technique for self-actualization and rejected a few parts of it, mainly the doctrine of rebirth, as residual superstitions.
Zazen and Shikantaza The aim of zazen is just sittingthat is, suspending all judgmental thinking and letting words, ideas, images and thoughts pass by without getting involved in them.
Anapanasati means to feel the sensations caused by the movements of the breath in the body. The Anapanasati Sutta gives an exposition on this practice.
The practice of mindfulness supports analysis resulting in the arising of wisdom Pali: In a publicly available correspondence between Bhikkhu Bodhi and B. Alan WallaceBodhi has described Ven.
But this view is neither particularly "Eastern" nor mystical.
Thoreau saw the same problem with our ordinary mind state in New England in and wrote with great passion about its unfortunate consequences. Transcendentalism was closely connected to the Unitarian Church,  [web 6] which in India collaborated with Ram Mohan Roy — and his Brahmo Samaj.
Suzukiwho attempted to present a modern interpretation of Zen, adjusted to western tastes. MBSR and similar programs are now widely applied in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans centers, and other environments. Mindfulness practices were inspired mainly by teachings from the Eastern Worldparticularly from Buddhist traditions.
Goenka in his Vipassana retreats, which he began in It has since been widely adapted in secular settings, independent of religious or cultural contexts. Mindfulness focuses the human brain on what is being sensed at each moment, instead of on its normal rumination on the past or on the future.Tudo sobre transmissoes de TV e Rádio via satélite.
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Introduction. Since the surviving evidence is fragmentary, there is not, nor can there be, a definitive or precise chronology. Performance history is often of limited use, as the first recorded performance of many plays was not necessarily when that play was first performed.
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