Dragons in Greek mythology Serpents figured prominently in archaic Greek myths. According to some sources, Ophion "serpent", a.
The literature of Judaism General considerations A paradigmatic statement is made in the narrative that begins with Genesis and ends with Joshua. In the early chapters of Genesis, the divine is described as the creator of humankind and the entire natural order.
In the stories of Edenthe Flood, and the Tower of Babelhumans are recognized as rebellious and disobedient. In the patriarchal stories about AbrahamIsaacJacoband Josepha particular family is called upon to restore the relationship between God and humankind.
The prophetic books in the Hebrew Bible these include the historical narratives up to the Babylonian Exile—i. These have been clothed in philosophical, mystical, ethnic, and political vocabularies, among others.
The emphases have been various, the disagreements often profound. No single exposition has exhausted the possibilities of the affirmations or of the relationship between them. Philosophers have expounded them on the highest level of abstraction, using the language of the available philosophical systems.
Mystics have enveloped them in the extravagant prose of speculative systems and in simple folktales. Attempts have been made to encompass them in theoretical ethical statements and to express them through practical ethical behaviour. The biblical texts, themselves the products of a long period of transmission and embodying more than a single outlook, were subjected to extensive study and interpretation over many centuries and, when required, were translated into other languages.
The whole literature remains the basis of further developments, so that any attempt to formulate a statement of the affirmations of Judaism must, however contemporary it seeks to be, give heed to the scope and variety of speculation and formulation in the past.
In its written form, Torah was considered to be especially present in the first five books of the Bible the Pentateuchwhich themselves came to be called Torah.
The oral tradition interpreted the written Torah, adapted its precepts to ever-changing political and social circumstances, and supplemented it with new legislation. Thus, the oral tradition added a dynamic dimension to the written code, making it a perpetual process rather than a closed system.
The vitality of this tradition is fully demonstrated in the way the ancient laws were adapted after the destruction of the Temple in 70 ce and by the role played by the Talmud in the survival of the Jewish people in exile. By the 11th century, Diaspora Jews lived in a Talmudic culture that united them and that superseded geographical boundaries and language differences.
Jewish communities governed themselves according to Talmudic law, and individuals regulated the smallest details of their lives by it. Scripture, Halakhic and Haggadic MidrashMishnaand Gemara were the sources that Jewish leaders used to give their communities stability and flexibility. Jewish communities and individuals of the Diaspora faced novel and unexpected situations that had to be dealt with in ways that would provide continuity while making it possible to exist with the unprecedented.
Prophecy and religious experience Torah in the broad sense includes the whole Hebrew Bible, including the books of the Prophets. According to the Prophets, God was revealed in the nexus of historical events and made ethical demands upon the community.
In Rabbinic Judaism the role of the prophet—the charismatic person—as a source of Torah ended in the period of Ezra i.
This opinion may have been a reaction to the luxuriant growth of apocalyptic speculation, a development that was considered dangerous and unsettling in the period after the Bar Kokhba revolt, or Second Jewish Revolt — ce. Indeed, there seems to have developed a suspicion that reliance on unrestrained individual experience as a source of Torah was inimical to the welfare of the community.
Such an attitude was by no means new. Related to this is the reluctance on the part of teachers in the early centuries of the Common Era to point to wonders and miracles in their own time. Thus, even among the speculative mystics of the Middle Ageswhere allegorization of Scripture abounds, the structure of the community and the obligations of the individual are not displaced by the deepening of personal religious life through mystical experience.
Admittedly, there have been occasions when Torah, even in the wide sense, has been rigidly applied. In certain historical situations the dynamic process of Rabbinic Judaism has been treated as a static structure.
What is of greater significance, however, is the way in which this tendency toward inflexibility has been reversed by the inherent dynamism of the rabbinic tradition.
Modern views of Torah Since the end of the 18th century, the traditional position has been challenged both in detail and in principle. The rise of biblical criticism has raised a host of questions about the origins and development of Scripture and thus about the very concept of Torah, in the senses in which it has functioned in Judaism.
Naturalistic views of God have required a reinterpretation of Torah in sociological terms. Other positions of many sorts have been and undoubtedly will be forthcoming.The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the Judaism of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of plombier-nemours.com Abrahamic religions are monotheistic religions: they worship only one God, the unique God.
The term derives from patriarch Abraham, a major biblical figure. SUMMARY.— In , the Reverend Vern Barnet, DMn, was named minister emeritus of CRES, a Kansas City community resource for exploring spirituality in all plombier-nemours.com founded CRES in , and became its minister-in-residence in with “community networking” responsibilities.
He now focuses on writing, teaching, and consulting. Notes and References 1 Tribe (Lat., tribus: the tripartite division of Romans into Latins, Sabines, and Etruscans), a social group bound by common ancestry and ties of consanguinity and affinity; a common language and territory; and characterized by a political and economic organization intermediate between small, family-based bands, and larger chiefdoms.
§What a religious tradition does—worship, prayer, pilgrimage, ritual, and so forth §How a religious tradition organizes—leadership, relationships among members, and so forth oIdentifies key critical issues in the study of religion. This page has had to move; our previous host "died".
Please note the new domain name. All our pages will be back eventually. Look at the site map for supporting pages.. Pope John Paul II indicates that people sometimes say they don't know how to pray.
An Introduction to Sacramental Theology SACRED ACTION Introduction As with most studies related to Christianity, we must begin with Christ Himself in order to be oriented correctly.
Specifically, His incarnation is the event that will necessarily guide much of the consideration given to the topic of sacramental theology.
The fact that God has somehow enfleshed .