It has given us key insights into the concept of risk, and has led to improved understanding of the way that markets function. At the same time, it has led to an ever increasing level of abstraction in the way that many asset owners and asset managers think about investing. Stocks are viewed not as businesses, but as collections of factor exposures.
Partial Transit Regional In this tactic, an ISP sells very low cost transit access to the entire peering population at an exchange point. This approach is similar to peering at the exchange point without the overhead of buying and deploying additional hardware, and without establishing and maintaining many relationships at an exchange point.
Note that only the routes announced to the partial transit provider at the exchange are propagated to the customer.
As described in previous work, both ISPs exchanged large amounts of peering traffic. Exodus felt that this traffic was destined across the U. Genuity threatened to de-peer.
The end result was de-peering and operational disruptions for both Genuity and Exodus customers. Peering resumed only after both sides reached an agreement to spread the traffic load across more interconnection points across the U.
The Chicken tactic is employed to abruptly change the peering relationship dynamic, and as the case above demonstrates, to threaten operational impact if neither side succumbs to a change. Other de-peerings carry similar overtones: Cogent Content Heavy vs Level 3, Cogent vs.
See the Sprint v Cogent lawsuit pdf. To understand this tactic you must recognize that the nature of web traffic is asymmetric; that is, small web requests generate comparatively large responses. The Content posters therefore White papers definition which of potentially many paths this relatively large proportion of traffic will flow.
So ISP A does not attempt to peer at this point. I heard stories of how this approach was amplified by using a traffic generator to replay traffic from previous months!
Perhaps it was a spot event, a bug in the peering analysis software. In any case, it is the Peering Coordinators job to deal with these issues rapidly.
Seeing the great transit expense that is paid for access to this traffic, the peering decision is easy for ISP B; ISP A is clearly a large traffic peer that is expensive to access over a transit link.
Peering is established with the target. Traffic manipulation stops about a month after peering is established. Since only a very small percentage of ISPs do the traffic analysis necessary to detect this maneuver, this tactic often goes undetected.
Since web traffic is asymmetric, the producer of the responses the content player has the greater ability to force a larger amount of traffic along one path or another. Access Heavy ISPs play this game as well but with different techniques.
The initial state is the reverse of the Content Heavy scenario described before; small requests generate large responses from the content provider. From my conversations I heard of two tactics to force traffic to go along the path that costs the target ISP the most money to access the access providers.
This forces all traffic to use the alternative path, resulting in increased transit fees for the target ISP. Since the Initiator may be indifferent between its two transit provider paths, there is little impact on its costs of traffic exchange, but potentially large impacts on the target ISP cost.
Along the same lines, Avi Freedman shared anecdotes of ISPs using widespread web spider deployment that pull content across peering and transit sessions in order to manipulate traffic and to meet peering ratios.
Similarly, special deals were made with access-heavy traffic inbound customers to accomplish the same thing. Here are a few additional notes from the Peering Coordinator Community. First, this tactic requires a large amount of spare capacity to handle the manipulated traffic to go along the alternative path.
Second, if the tactic is detected, the Peering Coordinator Community is small enough that everyone in the community hears about it. As stated above, one amplification tactic of the Traffic Manipulation approach is to add traffic generation to the mix. Peering prerequisites often include traffic volume minimums to be met in multiple geographically distributed locations.
Since many Peering Coordinators do not do the required traffic analysis to disprove an assertionand the cost of being wrong could be an expensive transit bill, the assertion may be accepted as truth.
Bluffing Traffic Load Futures. The Peering Coordinator in this maneuver typically asserts that the required traffic volumes for peering a are met today, or b will be met at some point in the short-term future based upon some event.
A large customer soon to be installed is a common form of this bluff. This approach is effective for several reasons: In summary, if the initiating ISP is NOT bluffing, it is difficult to compare the transit cost increase against the incremental load on the targeted ISP infrastructure.
Since transit is generally an order of magnitude more expensive than peeringif there is a chance the initiating ISP is not bluffing, peering generally makes sense.
As with Poker, once the bluff is called and found to be false, future peering negotiations and claims may be difficult.
Eric Anderson BT Ignite mentioned a slightly different but related bluff.High Definition Stream Management – Part 2 - The Technical Details. Learn about the foundation and key concepts of High Definition Stream Management and how it efficiently manages HD video footage while maintaining superior image detail.
The National Association for Gifted Children (NAGC) periodically issues Position Statements and posts White Papers that deal with issues, policies, and practices that have an impact on the education of gifted and talented students.
Explore our library of resources dedicated to helping you solve the most pressing power management challenges. White paper definitions. What exactly is a white paper? Are there any industry standards for these?
Aren’t there at least some conventions? What different types of white papers exist? 5G Americas White Papers. If you wish to use or reproduce these materials externally, please email us for permission at [email protected] and review our Terms and plombier-nemours.com welcome sharing the information from our white papers.
High Definition Stream Management – Part 2 - The Technical Details. Learn about the foundation and key concepts of High Definition Stream Management and how it efficiently manages HD video footage while maintaining superior image detail.